The Book Am-Tuat and The Book of Gates
"'Am-Tuat,'...i.e., 'The Book of what is in the Tuat,' is the name given by the Egyptians to the large funeral book (cosmological treatise) in which the priests of Amen describe the Other World according to the views of their order, and the passage of their god Amen-Ra (in his «boat« ) through the mysterious country which he traversed during the hours of the night...it depicts hundreds of gods and goddesses that appear nowhere else in the literature
TO SEE THE TEXT AND IMAGES
The history of the Book Am-Tuat shows that the Egyptians treated it as they treated their older Books of the Dead; they first copied it on the walls of tombs, then on the sides of stone sarcophagi and wooden coffins, and next on rolls of papyrus.
We have seen how the kings of the XVIIIth (during the time of Moses) and XIXth Dynasties had it copied on the walls of their tombs...
Similar in many details, but widely different from the Book Am-Tuat in point of fundamental doctrine (or so it seems), is the great funeral work to which the names 'Book of the Lower Hemisphere,' 'Book of Hades,' have been given.
A glance at the pictures which accompany the texts of this Book is sufficient to show that it deals with the passage of the Sun-god through the Other World during the hours of Night, but as M. Maspero pointed out long ago, it is wrong to call the region through which the god passes by the name of 'Lower Hemisphere,' for it suggests (he seems to think) that it is below the surface of the earth, which is not the case.
There is much to be said against the titles 'Book of Hades,' and 'Book of Hell,' and among the prominent characteristics that distinguish it from the Book Am-Tuat is a series of gates...It will be convenient and more correct to call it the 'Book of Gates...As the Book Am-Tuat was composed with the view of asserting the absolute supremacy of Amen-Ra in the Other World, so the Book of Gates was compiled to prove that, despite the pretensions of the priests of Amen-Ra, Osiris, the ancient god of the dead (and resurrection) was still the overlord of the Underworld, and that his kingdom was everlasting..."
"This region was called by the Egyptians 'Tat,' or 'Tuat,' or 'Tuaut;' the oldest form of the name, and that which is met with in the earliest of the Pyramid Texts is 'Tat.'
The chief god of the 'Tuat' was called 'Tuat'...and the beings who lived there were called 'Tuatiu.'
The meaning of the name Tat, or Tuat, is unknown, and it is useless to speculate upon it or invent etymologies for it; it was applied to the home of the beatified spirits and the damned, no doubt in prehistoric times, and the exact meaning which it conveyed to the minds of those who first used it has been lost...
To find a word which shall at once describe the situation and character of the Tuat is impossible (says the author), for the reason that the Egyptian conception of the place of the departed spirits is unique...
On the whole, the word Tuat may be best rendered by 'The Other World,' or 'Underworld,' always provided that it be clearly understood that the Egyptians never believed it to be under the earth.
In inventing a situation for the Tuat, the Egyptians appear to have believed that the whole of the habitable world, that is to say, Egypt, was surrounded by a chain of mountains lofty and impassable...
Outside of this chain of mountains...was the region of the Tuat; it ran parallel with the mountains, and was on the plane either of the land of Egypt or of the sky above it...
The Tuat had the shape of a valley; and from the fact that it began near the place where the Sun set, and ended near the place where he arose, it is permissible to say that the Tuat was nearly circular in form.
That this is the view taken by the Egyptians themselves is proved by the scene which produced in the Book of Gates.
Here we have the body of Osiris bent round a circle, and the hieroglyphics enclosed within it declare that it is the Tuat.
(The Egyptian Heaven and Hell, by E.A. Wallis Budge)
THE TUATHA DE DANANN
The Mythico-Historical Children of Israel
"The Irish race of today is popularly known as the Milesian Race, because the genuine Irish (Celtic) people were supposed to be descended from Milesius of Spain, whose sons, say the legendary accounts, invaded and possessed themselves of Ireland a thousand years before Christ.
But it is nearly as inaccurate to style the Irish people pure Milesian because the land was conquered and settled by the Milesians, as it would be to call them Anglo-Norman because it was conquered and settled by the twelfth century English.
The races that occupied the land when the so-called Milesians came, chiefly the Firbolg and the Tuatha De Danann, were certainly not exterminated by the conquering Milesians.
Those two peoples formed the basis of the future population, which was dominated and guided, and had its characteristics molded, by the far less numerous but more powerful Milesian aristocracy and soldiery.
All three of these races, however, were different tribes of the great Celtic family, who, long ages before, had separated from the main stream, and in course of later centuries blended again into one tribe of Gaels--three derivatives of one stream, which after winding their several ways across Europe from the East...finally blended in amity, and flowed onward in one great Gaelic stream.
Of these three certain colonisations of Ireland, the Firbolg was the first.
Legend says they came from Greece, where they had long been enslaved, and whence they escaped in the captured ships of their masters...But the possession of the country was wrested from the Firbolgs, and they were forced into partial serfdom by the Tuatha De Danann (people of the goddess Dana) who arrived later...
Totally unlike the uncultured Firbolgs, the Tuatha De Danann were a capable and cultured, highly civilized people, so skilled in the crafts, if not the arts, that the Firbolgs named them necromancers (practitioners of the art of revealing future events by calling up the spirits of the dead...
compare 1 Samuel 28:7-15 and of the methods employed by the entire school of Christian prophets after the time of Christ..."For Christ was dead, and is now alive."); and in course of time both the Firbolgs and the...Milesians created a mythology around them.
The question will arise, especially among present-day Jews: if the Tutha De Danann are among the children of Israel, why do we not find them in history speaking a Hebrew dialect?
And the simple answer is, we do.
The ancient Gaelic language is the proto-Hebrew dialect. The language that we associate with Hebrew in our time, which was not a spoken language at all in time of Moses (nor was it ever intended to be), was still being created over on the mainland of Europe.
It was being devised by that school of the "Druid" religion that was versed in the emerging Hebrew literary tradition--in the allegories and stories--and in the Kabbalistic means by which the Indo-European-Gaelic language of that ancient time was being cryptically transmitted into a sacerdotal Hebrew script.
The methods used presently fall under the headings of Gamatria, Notariqon, Temura, and Atbash.
This Hebrew code was being devised for the use of the priests and Levites, so that they could keep the Hebrew mysteries (thus access to the oracles of truth) from the sons of Darkness (and it seems they succeeded)...
As these adepts in the Hebrew mysteries walked abroad, transmitting Hebrew precepts and teachings to the peoples around them, they had the ability, or the choice, to do so directly from their own hidden code, thus speaking directly to those who were candidates for initiation into the Inner mysteries, or outwardly in allegories and metaphors to the people at large.
They read from their Hebrew code (which had no specific sound in itself other than the Gaelic from it was devised) but spoke to the people in the various languages and dialects of the peoples themselves.
They might explain the mysteries of Christ for instance, which were written there in the types and images of their Torah code, in terms of what would later become the Druid cult of Hesus, or the Greek cults of Apollo and Dionysus, or the Thracian Adonis.
All of which served in later times to create a mythological system among the other peoples and nations that seemed to be like the Hebrew myths, but different.
The reality is that they are all directly related, and all the adepts in the World-mystery, throughout every succeeding generation, have found the freedom to interpret them as such and to interrelate them.
...Over on the island, which was now indisputably De Danann, reigned the hero Lugh, famous in mythology. And after Lugh, the still greater Dagda--whose three grandsons, succeeding him in the sovereignty, were still reigning, says the stories, when the Milesians came.
Such a great people were the De Danann, and so uncommonly skilled in the few arts of the time, that they dazzled even their conquerors and successors, the Milesians, into regarding them as mighty magicians, (Magi).
Later generations of the Milesians, to whom were handed down the wonderful traditions of the wonderful people they had conquered, lifted them up into a mystic realm, their greatest ones becoming gods and goddesses (guiding principles and ideas) who supplied to their successors a beautiful mythology...
Lugh was not only the son of a god (of Manannan MacLir, the sea-god) and the greatest of heroes.
...but tradition gave him all the many mortal powers of his people, so that he was called Sab Ildanach meaning Stem of all the Arts.
When the De Danann first arrived in Ireland Lugh went to the court of Eochaid, the Firbolg king at Tara (a later place-name derived from "Torah", from which the Law is issued forth), and sought an office.
But no one was admitted a member of this court unless he was a master of some art or craft not already represented there.
The doorkeeper barring Lugh's way demanded on what ground he sought to be admitted. Lugh answered that he was a "saer" (carpenter).
No they had a good "saer" in the court already. Then he said he was a good smith. They had an able smith also. Well he was a champion.
They already had a champion. Next, he was a harper. They had a wonderful harper too. Then a poet and antiquarian. They had such--and of the most eminent. But he was a magician.
They had many Druids, adepts in the occult. He was a physician. They had a famous physician, Diancecht. He was a cupbearer. They had nine. Then a goldsmith. They had the famous Creidne. "Then," said Lugh, "go to your king, and ask him if he has in his court any man who is at once master of all these arts and professions. If he has, I shall not ask admittance to Tara."
Eochaid, the king, was overjoyed. He led in the wonderful Lugh, and put him in the chair of the "ard-ollam," the chief professor of the arts and sciences.
The Dagda, who reigned just before the coming of the Milesians, was the greatest of the De Danann.
He was styled Lord of Knowledge and Sun of all the Sciences.
His daughter, Brigit, was a woman of Wisdom, and goddess of poetry. The Dagda was a great and beneficent ruler for Eighty years."
(The Story of the Irish Race, A Popular History of Ireland, by Seumas MacManus)
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IRISH (Celto-European) GODS
The Celtic Hesus or Esus (Jesus) was a mysterious god of Gaul. The Irish form was "Aesar," meaning, "He who kindles a Fire," and the Creator.
In this we are reminded of the Etruscan "Aesar," the Egyptian Sun bull "Asi," the Persian "Aser," the Scandanavian "Aesir," and the Hindoo "Aeswar." The Bhagavat-Gita says of the last that "he resides in very mortal."
Hesus was acknowledged in the British Isles. In one place he is represented with a hatchet, cutting down a Tree.
As the Briton "Euzus," the figure is not attractive looking.
Dom Martin styles Esus or Hesus "the Jehovah of the Gauls." He was perhaps the Aesar, or Living Ones of the Etruscans.
Leflocq declares, "Esus is the true god of the Gauls, and stands for them the Supreme Being, absolute and free." The name occurs on an altar erected in the time of Emperor Tiberius, which was found in 1711 under the choir of Notre Dame, Paris.
Sun-gods were as common in Ireland as in other lands. ...The Irish sun-gods, naturally enough, fought successfully in summer (in the North), and the Bards give many illustrations of their weakness in winter.
Sun heroes were not precisely deities, as they were able to go down to Hades. Aengus, the young sun, whose foster-father was Mider, King of the Fairies (the memories), was the protector of the Dawn goddess "Etain,"...His father was the great god Dagda.
Sun gods have usually golden hair, and are given to shooting off arrows (sunbeams), like Chaldean ones...They grow very rapidly, are helpers and friends of mankind, but are engaged everywhere in ceaseless conflicts with the gods or demons of darkness.
The Irish sun-gods had chariots, like those of the East.
They indulged in the pleasures of the chase, and of fighting, but were more given to the pursuit of Erin's fairest daughters.
Occasionally they made improper acquaintance with darker beings, and were led into trouble thereby.
"Grian" was the appellation of the sun, and "Carneach" for the priest of the Solar deity. Strabo mentions a temple in Cappadocia to Apollo "Grynaeus."
Ovid notes a goddess called by the ancients Grane."
The Phrygians had a god "Grynaeus." "Grane" and Baal both refer to the sun. J.T. O'Flarrety regarded the Irish word "Grian" as pure Phoenician.
The "Four Masters" inform their readers that "the monarch Loagaire had sworn ratha-Greine agus Gavithe;" this is, by the Sun and the Wind.
Breaking his oath, he was killed by these divinities. Eusubius held that Usous, King of Tyre, erected Two Pillars for worship to the Sun and the Wind.
The Phoenicians have been credited as the introducers of Irish solar deities.
Sir S. Rush Meyrick held their origin in these islands from Arkite sun-worship: Tydain was the Arkite god, the Lord of Mystery.
H. O'Brien, in "Phoenician Ireland", Dublin 1822, spoke of the Irish word "Sibbol" as "a name by which the Irish, as well as almost all other nations, designated and worshipped Cybele;" "sibola," an ear of corn, being a symbol of Ceres and Cybele of the Phoenicians...
The Gaulish "Belenus" was known over these Islands. In his temples at Bayeux and at Bath there were images of the Solar god. He was adored, too, at Mont St. Michel.
A remnant of his worship is seen in the customs of maids washing their faces in May-morn dew, and then mounting a hill to see the sunrise.
According to Schedius, the word may be rendered 2 + 8 + 30 + 5 + 50 + 70 + 200 or 365, the period in days of the sun's annual round.
The solar Hercules was represented In Irish by "Ogmian" or "Ogham." The god of light was ever god of the Heavens...
"Samhan," literally servant, is derived from "Sam," the sun; (thus Samuel, the Druid priest of the Sun), so "samh-an," like the sun. As the Irish Pluto, he is guardian of the Dead. As such he would receive the prayers for souls on All Hallows Eve... Irish Druids and Old Irish Religions, by James Bonwick.
All of these ancient stories, myths and legends, along with the many various aspects of Nature worship that attended them (some based in the purely naturalistic and pantheistic framework of human thought, and others in the highly developed and intuitive frame of mind of the Hebrew prophets) are all directly related to, and for the greatest part flow from the Oral traditions of the Hebrew mysteries. Each of them were reconciled to the Hebrew Mysteries again in the time of Christ, in the Mystery of Christ...
IT IS INDEED, A LABIRINTH...AND SO MANY THREADS !