The global abuse of money creation
Friday, June 5, 2009
by Patrick Steensma With the advent of the Euro, the countries of the European Monetary Union finally switched to the money system that underlies the U.S. Dollar and British Pound. It is a monetary system during the last centuries an increasingly dominant role to play, leading to the acquisition of ever more political and economic power in the hands of international banking. Private enterprises, therefore, that a monopoly on money creation and have largely escape democratic control. In a summary of the history and an analysis of the backgrounds of the modern monetary system.
The Bank of Amsterdam
Money was originally a unit of account to the base of the economy, barter, to mediate and the value of trade goods to express. In the money system of the Roman Empire (RR), the right to store and share excluding currency in the state. The strict rule of thumb that have been used, was that the issue was limited until the value rose above the value of the metal itself. It is noteworthy that from the time of Julius Caesar to the fall of the RR value ratio (the ratio) of gold: silver 1:12 remained constant. From the fall of the RR in the 17th century, the right of currency issue and save the princes of the western part of Europe, and the self determination of the ratio. Through their struggle in this area led many to value and, many here were penalized.
Gradually, the paper was started. In the Netherlands, one of the first forms of the cardboard paper dollars, issued in 1572 by the City of Leiden. In 1609 took a major change by the founding of the Bank of Amsterdam (BVA), a private company. Its organization and operation is actually the basis of the current western banking system has come from. The system used the BVA was that each type of silver coin was received and gave credit for only pure metals content. It was then (to)-measured using the currency of the bank, it paid to them and people could money possibly in the form of dollars or ducats as a credit to the BVA leave (deposits). This system was attractive benefits, and from many corners of the world and loads of silver coins came to Holland.
This was the hitherto unknown phenomenon of the market value of the precious metals, which the introduction of an increasingly growing amount of money spent induced, which in turn caused a massive inflation. One consequence was that instead of metal for the money of account value. Thus, the "gold and silver standard" created a value of one currency in gold / silver. Until the law was given the number of coins of one currency prices, but after the 17th century, the law is not part of the valuation. The Institute brokkelde money off their importance by the government control over money was withdrawn, which was always seen as an essential element of sovereignty and a guarantee for a fair distribution of wealth.
After the end of the Eighty Years War in 1648 was released as free coin store and went designated coins (dollars) as legal tender by which the huge save by the free currency-induced price increases again corrected. The BVA was somewhat restricted. In 1795 found a marauding French king, however, empty and insolvent bank by the BVA in secret gold - and silver bars that had lent to its clients belonged. The civilian masters "of the BVA were perjured, and the city was" humiliated. " In 1816, the successor of the Netherlands Bank (DNB) was established based on the statutes and procedures of the Bank of England (1), a private company.
During the 17th century wars between Holland and England were the British so impressed by the operative forms used by the Dutch, that they them from A to Z are to copy. If the country was in 1653 also (temporarily) a Republic in 1666 and picked up the system of free coin store. By the insufficient supply of gold and silver to coins and the lack of incoming tax revenue, new roads were sought for the completion of the money system. In 1688 was William III (na Prince of Orange) the throne of England if he promised the ruling gave bankers the right to spend money. His doubts about this because he was removed at 8% interest could borrow as much as he wanted, and the banknotes were entitled "The Bank of England - speech Smartphones (exchangeable against) in Gold or Silver Coins.
Consequently, in 1694 the Bank of England (BOE) was founded, which in turn was an example for the banks on the continent. The brain behind this was William Paterson, a prominent banker. He agreed to allow the king to provide gold from its own reserve bank and paper money, so the only banker to the English treasury. Thus, the BOE a private company. (2) A remarkable provision in the statute setting up was "The Bank hath benefit on the interest on all monies which it creates out of nothing". This was the government's activities financed by this money to borrow, instead of exercising its right to own it. And it was the phenomenon of 'debt' institutionalized. (3)
The former practice of banks and goldsmiths contributed to the emergence of the current banking system. People often dumped their gold with them, against presentation of a bill. Someone else who was also borrowed from them a bill. There were two bills with a lot of gold that covered. They are long-circulating and could be calculated how often customers return to their bills in exchange for gold, the system was becoming more sophisticated. Thus, more and more bills issued with less gold as actual coverage.
These bills were legal tender and increased as the total money in circulation. The goldsmiths and banks got the necessary problems. If they were regular panic waves stormed by people who wanted their paper 'silver', when the rumor (again) the round was that banks and goldsmiths not enough silver and gold had people to pay. The lending was stopped, outstanding loans were called, and so many went bankrupt. In the course of the 18th, 19th century, such crises warp and weft.
At the end of 18th and early 19th century, grew the bankers Rothschild family to a trendsetter in the international banking world. Stam Father Mayer Anselm Rothschild of the word: "Give me the right of a country the money to spend and I do not care who makes the laws." In London, the son Nathan, who said, by the war with Napoleon in 2500 once its ability to increase to 50 million pounds, while the total money in England was £ 35 million.
He did this by many of the loans to the British government to buy as well as that of the state debt of other European countries. He achieved this with a group to cover reserve large amounts of money to borrow (read: create). He was as the personal confidence of the British Government through their indebtedness to 'deliver'. The Roth Childs we are due that since there is a structural cooperation between (read: out of money creation by) governments and (to) banking houses. (4)
The United States
In the former American colonies of England were allowed some states to spend their own money. In 1764 they were at the instigation of the English bankers banned, so they should lend them money. This provides the necessary resistance, and was a main cause of the independence war. Also in the U.S. was in the 18th century of identical regular panic attacks, as in England, with all of this economic malaise. The experiences described the Founding Fathers of the United States for the paper (5) as an evil element. Therefore, comprehensive looks at the cash handling system, which was enshrined in the Constitution. This granted to Congress the power to spend money and to regulate its value. (6)
Also if only coins issued, this was the only legal tender for payment of debts (7) and the dollar account. (8) Within one year after the entry into force of the Constitution were the problems with money disappeared, and in subsequent years the prosperity grew rapidly in its member states. The first Minister of Finance, Alexander Hamilton, was very hands of the bankers in England, and especially those of the Rothschild banking house. He got a law through which the right to issue money was given back to the earlier reports enemy. (9) It involved the creation of The Bank of the United States, a private company, whose sole duty was to spend money (10) Andrew Jackson, who by his sound money system reduced debt to zero, was a fierce opponent of this law and in 1828 he extended this law - which the license for the same bank would extend - not. (11) His successors correct.
When Lincoln became president, he was looking to finance the civil war. The international bankers wanted to capture 20-30% interest, so that he refused. Therefore he created a law which he specified "United States Notes" - so-called "Green Backs" - in the created without any issue to the debt or interest was. Zo financierde hij de oorlog. The international bankers were all in panic, because their position at stake. Despite vehement protests from Lincoln in 1863 was a law, which extended the right to issue back to a private company ended up. Red aangelopen urged that the associated combat and also bankers wanted so he killed. (12)
There remained in the U.S. struggle about control over money creation. A major blow to the bankers was beaten as a result of the (manipulated) financial crisis of 1907. This supposedly showed that a central bank was desperately needed. (13) Thus in 1913 the Federal Reserve (FR) through printed. The name does not suspect, but the FR is a fully private company, run by 12 private banks. It is particularly sophisticated by Paul Warburg, the bank Kuhn, Loeb & Co., emerged from the banking house of Rothschild. He did this in cooperation with bankers including JP Morgan and Rockefeller. (14) Congressman McFadden, chairman of the banking committee, was behind the fraudulent entries and all stakeholders in the company of the FR theft and counterfeiting charged. (15) One of his successors, Wright Patman, concluded that the FR uncontrolled, independent shadow government that carries out the monetary power belongs to Congress. (16)
Strictly speaking, the formal control of the money issue and valuation of money, according to the Constitution by Congress is not delegable, and is not even certain that the bank paper of the FR 'legal tender (ie not including the payment of debts to state in which you live, see footnotes 6-8). In practice, the FR banks the power to the state printing plant to go and for example 2 / 3 penny a $ 50,000-ticket printing, which they in a state treasury bond purchase.
This put them in $ 50,000 cash (while they still have the interest it paid to remain) and pots of money on this as cover for an additional $ 1,500,000, - out to borrow at 6% annual interest. (17)
The last president who some of the FR wanted to do was JF Kennedy. He had an Executive Order (18) in which he created "United States Notes in circulation could bring - without debt and interest - instead of the 'Federal Reserve Notes. He had 350 million to $ 5-dollar bills (see figure below) in circulation. Perhaps this is one of the reasons for his murder. The day after the murder was President Lyndon Johnson, and on that day he revoked this Executive Order.
In 1971 Nixon lifted the cover (and the convertibility) by gold debt (Note also foreign) in dollars and then to bank paper to complete, making the banks hands were still free. (19) years thereafter, the rest of the world gold framework. (20)
The international bankers are the last two centuries increasingly focusing on international economic policy purposes. Other economies were so areas to conquer their money system to export as a means for world domination. Quigley doing their intentions clear from the cloth: "... the powers of financial capitalism ... had another far reaching aim, nothing less than to create a world system of financial control in private hands able to dominate the political system of each country and the economy of the world as a whole. This system was to be controlled in a feudalist fashion by the central banks of the world acting in concert, by secret agreements arrived at in frequent private meetings and conferences. "(21)
Research shows that even if American bankers was that Lenin and Trotsky have financed and 80% of the construction of the Soviet Union has been done with the help of U.S. banks and companies. It is also known that Hitler was financed by U.S. banks (including the Union Banking Corporation) and supported (including Chase Bank). (22)
After World War II, the international banks also money creators of the World Bank and the IMF become. (23) by imposing their policy (Structural Adjustment Programs) mainly from the late'70s, the international banks to ensure that more than 100 developing countries with huge debt burdens (nb in fake dollars) were saddled with all the consequences of this . (24) also were in the 80s many parts of the debt of large companies and commercial banks in developing countries erased and turned into official debt. The collapse of communism opened up new possibilities in the 90s.
The current situation is that banks create money from nothing and made deposits de facto multiply. For a loan they need only 3% of the amount lent to cover. There is hardly a money printed ticket to be 95% of the money has been scriptural. The gold standard has led some to cover the money in circulation, but since the release is the way for unlimited geldschepperij. On paper, this pledge bank in the form of a title it also disappeared - on the EURO is nothing - and currencies increasingly an abstraction. Continuous increase in money supply is inherent in this system and a major cause of inflation, so more and more must be borrowed. The banks keep inflation on a 'civilized' level so that the confidence in their money system. Actually, the governments with their financing needs (is the same as those of) the basis and guarantee / trust of the international capital market.
Trading in government bonds and treasury bills, with a daily turnover of hundreds of billions of dollars, as it were, in the heart of the system.
EMU countries have a maximum national debt (25) of 60% on target. The ratio of eg the U.S. is now above 85%, its debt is $ 6 trillion. (26) added, the debt of all countries in the world in 1994 76%! Specifically, this funding system assumes that taxpayers pay for the expenses of governments, their loans. These government loans are the promises of tax payers to pay, secured by a first lien on all the immovable and movable property of a country and the national income. Thus, promises of governments into commitments by private persons. (27) It is no coincidence that simultaneous with the creation of the FR in the U.S. income tax system was introduced. (28) If this act - and others (excessive) taxes - the cash cow of such systems.
The DNB is by amending the Banking Act in 1998 formally completely independent of the state. This change was necessary so that the CCD was to join the European System of Central Banks. In fact, in the light of the above, it means the complete transfer to the European Central Bank of the sovereign right of the EMU countries to do the money issue to regulate. Article 104 of the Maastricht Treaty of 1992 also clearly states: "The central bank has not held the government credit for, the central bank can not be forced to provide such a credit. (29) This should governments primarily through the regular banks provide financing.
This, and the formal transfer of sovereignty means a complete exclusion for a country to its own debt-free economy with its own money to provide for and take the money and regulate value, eg à la Lincoln (actually, the ECB has become a copy of the Federal Reserve) . Thus, the debt and the tax system, driven by a constant inflation, excellent resources for enforcement of labor coercion, in the hands of international bankers. The Euro seems so at first glance, cost savings and a welcome offspring in a highly intelligent financial system, but rather a further detail seal of malpractices in a system with money counterfeiting as a basis.
Understandably, the case that the proposed monetary reforms in the 19th and 20th century there were always means that the institution of debt - gepraktiseerd as described above - should be released and should not be recognized. (30) This example would also be the biggest problem of the developing countries can be solved. Ideally, the inclusion in the Constitution of a monetary system that the parliament regularly - possibly through delegation, but under its control permanent - in terms of value (no absurd market or inflation) and volume of circulation, while banks' money-creating function is denied.
The Government may request the people's representation of its money for the current financial year. (29) also requires the tax to be revised (reduced) and be tailored to the expenses for the government. (31) If there is more money to the people and business itself, which they can exert more influence on funding issues in society.
A very striking example of how a completely different flow, and people's own creativity again use the "Wara-project". (32) This project was started in Germany in October 1929 and involved an exchange association with the exchange "Wara", established to combat sales stagnation and unemployment. After 2 years there were more than 1000 companies are connected, a very broad scope covering. (33) In this value system was a monthly decrease of 1% included.
This was built to guarantee a Rappe velocity and curbing oppotneigingen. If this is not en covers that can cause crises. In that respect it is the logic in that money is essentially the reflection of the production possibilities at any given moment. These are finite or limited, and this means that the money of that time is finite in value. This also means that each time money is needed based on production potential of a given moment. It is desirable that this is reflected in the money system. The current money system will not reflect this refinement. In the last of money as a factor in isolation, this case is a product with an infinite shelf life, and even a production tool rather than a reflection of the production possibilities (nb money is essentially the bookkeeper of the economy). (34)
The villages Schwanenkirchen, Hengersberg and Schöllnach were in autumn 1930 (when the world is in crisis, the deflation of construction) even completely switched to the Wara, so that unemployment had disappeared and marketing at a structural level remained healthy. The Wara was dead by the German Minister of Finance as prohibited stated that the crisis returned and unemployment rose again continuously. (35) blew the meantime, however, to other countries.
In Wörgl (Austria) was founded in 1932 by the Mayor of such an initiative started in there called "Frei Money" because of the need for certain projects, but this was made impossible by the high debt of the town because of the prevailing unemployment there . (36) This Freizeitzentrum money people could pay their local taxes and that wages were paid. Thus, alongside the Austrian Schilling Freizeitzentrum this money and started walking the other surrounding villages to accept themselves as well. One year later were 170 other places also to implement, but soon thereafter it was prohibited by law declared by the law of money issue exclusive to the Central Bank belonged. Result was that as the crisis turned back.
In the U.S., the time when well-known Professor Irving Fischer a very laudatory article, which more than 100 national newspapers published, on how the remaining effects of the prevailing crisis of 1929 would solve. A lot of cities are going to apply (37), however, it was applied much too high value used (2% each week instead of 1% per month), making it not as in Wörgl worked. (38) The lost, its attractiveness and confidence of the people and then Roosevelt declared as prohibited adhv his New Deal. (39) The former French Minister-President E. Daladier was very impressed when he in 1934 on the ground in Wörgl is to behold. He came to the remarkable statement that "... this system is to ensure that the movement of 1789 in economic terms can be picked up again." (40)
Other such effects are also conceivable, such as LETS systems. (41) An existing form in Argentina is the Credito, now paper become the living conditions of today (20.07.02) has 7 million people has improved, and part of the world's increasingly successful exchange network 'Red Global del Trueque . (42)
The Constitution of the United States can further still serve as an example, with the proviso that only coins as legal tender and not no longer practical, the principles of the system itself that, however. A gold coverage is not because there is better to find that a real confidence basis. (43) The 'concrete abstraction' lies in that as long as people are the circulating currency trust by simply accepting as legal tender, it will be developed to value and the 'legitimacy' is endorsed (as was acknowledged by someone from the FR (44)). Creating a trust better than the current corrupt system, as seen, is a simple matter.