PLEASE READ THIS IT IS VERY IMPORTANT........ultimate strategic objective of IO is to deter a potential or actual adversary or other TA from
taking actions that threaten U.S. national interests. In addition, IO actions executed through
civilian-controlled portions of the global information environment must account for U.S. policy and legal
issues, as well as potentially disruptive infrastructure issues, through civil-military coordination at all
levels. IO actions that may cause unintended reactions from U.S. or foreign populaces also require
B-106. IO may target human decision making or automated decision support systems with specific
actions. Technology allows for increasingly precise targeting of automated decision making and affords
more sophisticated ways to protect it. However, targeting automated decision making is only effective if the
adversary is relying on it.
B-107. The focus of IO is on the decision maker and the information environment to affect decision
making and thinking processes, knowledge, and understanding of the situation. IO can affect data,
information, and knowledge in three basic ways:
” By taking specific psychological, electronic, or physical actions that add, modify, or remove
information from the environment of various individuals or groups of decision makers.
” By taking actions to affect the infrastructure that collects, communicates, processes, and stores
information in support of targeted decision makers.
” By influencing the way people receive, process, interpret, and use data, information, and
B-108. Commanders use IO capabilities in both offensive and defensive operations simultaneously to
accomplish the mission, increase their force effectiveness, and protect their organizations and systems.
Fully integrating IO capabilities requires planners to treat IO as a single function. Commanders can use IO
capabilities to accomplish the following:
” Destroy. Destruction is damaging a system or entity so badly that it cannot perform any function
without being replaced or entirely rebuilt.
” Disrupt. Disruption is breaking or interrupting the flow of information.
” Degrade. Degradation is reducing the effectiveness or efficiency of adversary C2 or
communications systems and information collection efforts or means. IO can also degrade the
morale of a unit, the target’s value, or the quality of adversary decisions and actions.
” Deny. Denial is preventing the adversary from accessing and using critical information, systems,
” Deceive. Deception is causing a person to believe what is not true. MILDEC seeks to mislead
adversary decision makers by manipulating their perception of reality.
” Exploit. Exploitation is gaining access to adversary C2 systems to collect information or to plant
false or misleading information.
” Influence. Influence is causing others to behave in a manner favorable to U.S. forces.
” Protect. Protection is taking action to guard against espionage or capture of sensitive equipment
” Detect. Detection is discovering or discerning the existence, presence, or fact of an intrusion into
” Restore. Restoration is bringing information and information systems back to their original state.
” Respond. Response is reacting quickly to an adversary’s or others’ IO attack or intrusion.
B-109. SC constitutes focused USG efforts to understand and engage key audiences to create, strengthen,
or preserve conditions favorable for the advancement of USG interests, policies, and objectives through
coordinated programs, plans, themes, messages, and products synchronized with the actions of all elements
of national power. DOD efforts must be part of a governmentwide approach to develop and implement a
more robust SC capability. The DOD must also support and participate in USG SC activities to understand,
inform, and influence relevant foreign audiences, including the DOD’s transition to and from hostilities,
security, military forward presence, and stability operations. PA, DSPD, and IO capabilities primarily
accomplish DOD transition and coordination.